Welcome to the Inventory of current access to justice innovations. Here we are cataloguing projects that are currently implemented or being piloted in legal service clinics, firms, courts, libraries, and other locations.

Use this inventory by browsing through the posts, each of which profiles a different category of access innovations and which gives examples and links to the projects in that category.

You can also filter through the inventory using the filters and search mechanism below. This will help you get straight to the resources you might be most interested in.

The National Center for State Courts has a 2004 article from Don Hardenbergh, president of Courtworks, on Trends in Courthouse Design :: Courthouse Facilities. In the article, Hardenbergh profiles the move to use the space of courts to make the judicial system more accessible, navigable, and open to the public. It ...
East Bay Stand Down is a project offered in California in which at-risk and homeless military veterans can access all kinds of service help over four days. It includes medical and dental care, housing, driver's licenses, court services, hygiene, and more.
Legal Server has a project Houston.AI, a new set of tools that allows for smarter intake of people, finding of their issues, and referring them to the right support. What? Houston.AI is a web-based platform designed to help non-profit legal aid agencies more effectively serve those who cannot afford attorneys. Comprised of ...
Florida Pro Bono Matters is a website that allows for matching volunteer lawyers with cases. It allows for legal aid groups to easily post cases from their case management system, to then be easily found, filtered, adn signed up for by lawyers.
The Robot Lawyeris a chatbot made to let people get legal options and screening -- and even fill in documents by chatting through a messenger interface on a website. It has been applied to traffic tickets, refugee asylum applications, and homeless benefits.
An Ohio hospital has created an internal navigation system through a mapping app. It lets anyone find their doctor or destination by putting it into the app, and getting step by step directions about where to go. Mercy Health’s Jewish Hospital has created a customized mapping system to help patients or ...
Namati has a program called Grassroots Legal Advocates. It has paralegals trained in the basics of local law, as well as complementary skills like community organizing, training, advocacy, and strategic mediation. The paralegals and advocates can help empower local communities with legal knowledge and procedures. Namati intends them as a frontline ...
Project Homeless Connect, run by the Colorado Lawyers Committee brings together coordinated services on a single day for homeless individuals. Legal volunteers help people connect to legal assistance, as well as public benefits, medical care, housing, employment, and other needed services. There is also a "Homeless Court" to allow people to resolve ...
The Colorado Lawyers Committee has assembled a list of community clinics that are around the state, to get legal resources to people. There are "Legal Nights" in Denver and Greeley. At these nights, lawyers come to resource centers and churches in the community, with volunteer interpreters. They provide legal info and referrals ...
University of Georgia has a Street Law program. It holds sessions to train people, especially young people, on legal topics. Much of their work is focused on how young people can understand the criminal justice system and the social services system, to be smart when navigating them. Street Law UGA conducts ...
The Providence Public Library hosts lawyers who will answer questions for free. It's called "Lawyers in the Library." No appointments are needed, and the series is free. It's run with a Presentation from a lawyer, and then an opportunity with people to speak to that lawyer about the presented topic. For example, they've had ...
The Chicago Law & Education Foundation  has a high school law clinic that works on providing services, particularly around immigration law, to students in need. The Chicago Law and Education Foundation was started in 2010 by teacher/attorney Dennis Kass. CLEF launched a pilot clinic at Little Village Lawndale High School during ...
We use this one-page Evaluation sheet to review a service, product, or idea. It prioritizes the user's point of view -- to make sure that the thing you're reviewing has a good user experience. It can be used for proposals or existing things. The sheet forces the reviewer to give a ...
Public legal education groups, including the Justice Education Society, in British Columbia have created online guides to help a person have difficult conversations. They are particularly meant to resolve disputes before they become more problematic. These give a small training in the mindsets and approaches a person can use to get to ...
King County provides a  Neighborhood Legal Clinics program to give free, limited legal help to people in Washington State. There are specialty clinics, like around family, debt, elder law, civil rights, etc. They don't offer help on criminal issues. The purpose of the Neighborhood Legal Clinics program (NLC) is to offer free, ...
In Iowa, there are two programs that sponsor Free Legal Aid for low-income residents at libraries. The Iowa State Bar Public Service Project and the Iowa Legal Aid Volunteer Lawyers Project offer statewide services through the library. People can come to the library on certain dates to consult with lawyers without ...
The San Mateo County Law Library has a Lawyer in the Library Program. Once a month, the Redwood City-based library has a live lawyer present for 20 minute free consultations. You must sign up before hand. The San Mateo County Law Library participates in the San Mateo County Public Library System's 'Lawyer in ...
Court MD is a project from the National Center for State Courts that lets court admins run an audit of their own organization, to figure out what's going wrong and where they should focus resources. [vimeo 181051504 w=640 h=360] Here's the description from NCSC: ...start with CourtMD, a new and improved online diagnostic ...
BillFixers is a service that lets you have someone else deal with your bills, to figure out how to negotiate them down. Our expert negotiators are ready to lower your bills up to 35%! Get started by signing up with BillFixers today! You pay them half of what you can save, after ...
AirHelp scouts your flight details to see if you can make a claim for compensation. You can enter your flight details with airports and dates if your flight has been cancelled or overbooked. Then you can check your eligibility to see if you can apply for compensation. Flight delayed? Canceled? Missed ...
Tenants in Action is an app for tenants in LA to document and report issues they have with housing problems. They can use the app to note what problems they're experiencing, match that to codes in the government-speak, and then register a complaint -- all through the app.  
Paribus is a tool that finds you ways to get reimbursed in part from companies you've bought products from. You give them access to your emails where you get receipts, and then it looks for opportunities for you to get money back from that company when prices drop or there ...
Can we use technology to seek out problems that have legal dimensions, that people aren't aware of? Heat Seek is a technology-based legal tool to help people see if heating code violations have occurred. It uses sensor technology to watch whether and how homes are being heated in NYC, and identifying when ...
SquaredAway is a web-app that promotes healthy relations between landlords and tenants -- helping resolve and prevent housing disputes. It does so by providing a communications platform for landlords and tenants, as well as wikis, checklists, and other guides. It lets Chicago tenants and landlords keep track of what issues there are ...
JustFix is an app that is built for NYC tenants to understand their housing rights, gather documentation that could be used to support their legal claims, and to share their case file with advocates. JustFix.nyc adds another tactic to the fight for housing justice by partnering with grassroots organizations to create ...
The web-app Due Processr takes the user through an interactive questionnaire that helps the person to determine if they are eligible for the qualification of 'Indigency' in Massachusetts. The app breaks apart the eligibility factors into distinct questions, and in one page of responses the user will get their answer about ...
Mobile apps aimed at non-legal service providers help them screen for legal problems for their clients. For example there is an app specifically designed for use in medical-legal partnerships, in which users have come to a medical facility to deal with a medical problem. The app can be used by a service ...
There is a lot of interest in developing new, and new modes of, legal health checkups. There are some such checkups currently in action -- like this one from Ontario, which is delivered through a web survey. This one, created by Halton Community Legal Services, is specifically for low-income individuals in ...
Mobile legal help apps are becoming increasingly common. In these apps, often developed as standalone applications for Android or iOS systems, the user gets a wide range of legal help information specifically geared for self-represented litigants all on their phone. The advantage of these apps is that once they're downloaded you ...
There are many HotDocs and A2J document assembly projects that have been funded by TIG that have replication potential. Listed below is a brief synopsis of a couple of those projects. From South Central Michigan: automated forms completion. Legal Services of South Central Michigan developed information and resources for self-represented litigants throughout the state. The project ...
Online intake is an always-on service, that lets anyone with an internet connection enter their information and find what services they might qualify for. The advantage of an online intake system is that it prevents the need for a person from having to figure out how to connect to an ...
I-CAN! Legal is a software tool to help laypeople prepare court forms through a more interactive and user-friendly online questionnaire. I-CAN! Legal helps people prepare their court forms using an easy online questionnaire. I-CAN! provides step-by-step instructions for how to file the forms and proceed with the court case. In Orange ...
Source: A team at Northeastern Law has been building a simulation game to help self-represented litigants prepare for their court appearance. The sim­u­la­tion game is par­tic­u­larly tar­geted to the growing number of people who cannot afford legal rep­re­sen­ta­tion and thus rep­re­sent them­selves in legal pro­ceed­ings ranging from evic­tions and mort­gage fore­clo­sures ...
Source: New Mexico - Diagnostic Tool to Assess Potential for Self-Representation The New Mexico Access to Justice Commission used an ATJ Innovation Grant to develop a diagnostic tool to assess factors that might help or hinder a particular individual in self-representation, as a first step in developing a comprehensive on-line intake ...
Rechtwijzer is a Dutch platform to help laypeople through the start of a legal process -- from problem to legal process. Probleem of conflict? Vul stap voor stap Rechtwijzer in. U krijgt advies over wat u in uw situatie kunt doen en wie u daarbij kunnen helpen. It takes an 'expert ...
NYC Housing Court - Resolution Assistance Program (RAP) offers the Court Navigator Program: The Court Navigator Program was launched in February 2014 to support and assist unrepresented litigants - people who do not have an attorney - during their court appearances in landlord-tenant and consumer debt cases. Specially trained and supervised ...
Source: Arkansas - Document Assembly Software The Arkansas Access to Justice Commission used an ATJ Innovation Grant to develop a pro se document assembly form for uncontested divorce with children. The software will be used in a court-house based pilot project in which attorneys assist pro se litigants on a limited ...
The Alabama Access to Justice Commission used an ABA Expansion Grant to implement the web-based pro bono program Online Tennessee Justice, which allows pro bono attorneys to answer questions submitted by clients through a website.  In Alabama the website has been launched as Alabama Legal Answers. Project Summary & Assessment See more: Alabama - Online SRL ...
This project received an Innovation Grant through the ABA. Read more: Colorado - Serving Modest-means Clients The Colorado Access to Justice Commission and Colorado Bar Association used an ATJ Innovation Grant to develop a two-part project aimed at providing legal assistance to moderate-income individuals.  The first is providing assistance to low- and ...
I was excited to discover the OpenJustice Initiative, a move from the California DOJ to make its data more open, and provide a basis for more usable tools, interfaces, and processes for people who interact with the DOJ. See it in action: State of California Department of Justice - OpenJustice OpenJustice ...
Talking to Bonnie Hough of the California Judicial Council last week, she recommended checking out several great projects coming out of Canada -- specifically British Columbia -- for inspiration about how courts can be more user-friendly. Many of them are efforts of the Justice Education Society, which is a public-oriented ...
During my Spring 2015 class at Stanford d.school/Law School on Intro to Legal Design, we were lucky enough to have Sacha Steinberger visit us and present on her Project Legal Link. I drew up some notes during her presentation, about what she's working to do -- bringing social service providers ...
On Friday July 24th, 2015 the Bay Area NPR-affiliate, KQED, reported on a local juvenile court that takes a unique user-oriented approach to justice. Matthew Green's report Inside Oakland’s Youth Court, Where Kids Call the Shots describes the Centerforce Youth Court, that takes on offenders who are juveniles with first-time misdemeanors. ...
I am working with a team at Carnegie Mellon to create more Usable Privacy Policies. One of the main deliverables we're creating is a plugin for web browsers, that shows the user information about the site that they're on. The goal is to present information about the site's legal and ...
News appeared today that NBC picked up a pilot from the man behind Law & Order, Dick Wolf, to create a show for next TV season, called You The Jury. On the show, a civil court case will play out, and the TV-watching public will play the jury. Like with American ...
I'm excited to see the development of Project Legal Link, a new type of resource that links social & legal services together in the Bay Area. I was introduced to it last year by the woman who is making it happen -- Sacha Steinberger. Sacha is a lawyer, & and ...
The National Expungement Project. is a Maryland-based effort to guide people with a criminal record through an eligibility check (can I expunge my record) and then direct them to how they can follow through on this procedure (where can I find good -- and maybe even free -- legal help?). ...
Last week I was at a symposium at the Univ. of South Carolina Law School, all about access to justice and doing more empirical, data-driven research about how to create better & more impactful access initiatives. Karen Lash, the Deputy Director of the DOJ's Access to Justice Initiative, presented on ...
Some quick sketchnotes of a talk from Jim Greiner of Harvard Law School, speaking with Univ. of South Carolina Law School about how to engage people in debt procedures -- how to get them to show up in court. They tried to reach out to people in debt proceedings with ...
The National Center for Medical-Legal Partnership has a New issue brief on medical-legal partnership and health centers. Marsha Regenstein, PhD, Joel Teitelbaum, JD, LLM, Jessica Sharac, MSc, MPH, and Ei Phyu authored the piece "Medical-Legal Partnership and Health Centers: Addressing Patients’ Health-Harming Civil Legal Needs as Part of Primary Care." ...
Last night, I helped organize a group of lawyers & designers to kick off a longer design process, about reimagining how we convey Know Your Rights materials to lay people. We had a great mix of people who work on Know Your Rights initiatives as a part of community law ...
There is an interesting court redesign organization that's come out of the University of Michigan Law School.  There is an Online Court Project that Univ. of Michigan has funded, and developed through the company Court Innovations, Inc. I had written about it previously when my colleague Briane had mentioned an initial ...
Communication professor Lien Tran of the Univ. of Miami has developed an offline game for users of the US immigration system -- called Toma el Paso, or Make  a Move.  It uses a familiar board game structure to present the legal system to the youth who are currently proceeding through ...
In response to the surge of Unaccompanied Immigrant Children coming into the US over the past year, a group has come together in Maryland to produce a social service-finding portal for these kids. Buscando offers a very clean, usable platform for a child or her advocate to find the right ...
I'm working on a project right now to bring court reminder messaging systems into some California courts.  I've been reaching out to different open-source platforms that offer text-messaging systems to be customized in local installations. I'll be publishing a full-blown write-up of the project soon enough -- but first a ...
ZoningCheck is a legal web app to help business owners navigate zoning regulations.  It's a winner of one of the grants from the Knight Foundation's News Challenge from last year. It's an Open Government app, that processes local city codes into searchable, navigable experiences online. Rather than going in person to ...
[caption id="attachment_2878" align="alignnone" width="700"] from the National Center for Medical-Legal Partnership's Toolkit[/caption] Among the many camps of ideas for how to increase access to justice, one of the strongest I keep returning to is Devolved Legal Services.  What I mean by this: How can we devolve legal services out of offices -- ...
The New York Times profiled the start-up Roompact yesterday, framing it as a roommate dispute tool.  It also is a legal product -- it's a platform for two parties to come together and create a contract about the terms on which they'll be roommates, and then flag potential violations & ...
Project Nanny Van is an excellent new example of creative legal service design.  Dan Jackson from Northeastern Law's NuLawLab clued me in about it. The NuLawLab & its law students have been working with Rev Tank & Marisa Jahn in creating this mobile van that comes to locations where nannies ...
Pangea Legal Services is a San Francisco collective of lawyers who are working to support immigrants with legal support -- through a low-bono and pro-bono model that provides services on a sliding scale of fees.   It works on asylum cases, deportations, DACA and U-visa applications, among other services. It also does ...
Immigrant Justice Corps is a fellowship program (or legal incubator) to train people to serve as legal assistants for immigrants in the US. Its application is currently open for a new round of fellows -- with applications due in just over a week.  Both JDs and non-JDs can apply to ...
Last week I attended the presentation about Modest Means Incubators at the State Bar of California. There were judges, private lawyers, law school admins, legal service providers, and court staff there to talk about how new models of legal practices can be built. The goal is to provide new access to ...
Two years ago, there started some talk about US courts using SMS and other phone-based communication to issue reminders for court hearings to people. It seems several other countries have already launched such pilots. The Qatari government's Supreme Judiciary Council has one such program live, at Court Hearing SMS Reminder - ...
I've started scouting out different courtroom based service & system designs.  Here is one, that my colleague Briane alerted to me: the Online Court Project based out of the University of Michigan.  It features new ideas to integrate tech and automation into court processes.   Led by U-M Law School professor J.J. ...
Check out a new data-gathering & redesign project from Nikki Zeichner, The Parole Hearing Data Project. It could be of use to legal professionals and advocates who are building new tools, or evaluating stats and data to make better arguments. The Parole Hearing Data Project is a repository of New York ...
The recent UX Sprint for Security & Privacy Tools in San Francisco featured a great list of projects that work to empower citizens. Most center on: How can we enable citizens to communicate free of government surveillance? and How can we help people report on & document atrocities and abuses? Here ...
Fixed - The easiest way to fix a parking ticket. Fixed is an app that lets you hand off your parking ticket to the company, for them to fight it for you on your behalf. You pay them nothing if you lose the contest and have to pay the fine. You ...
via NYC Housing Court - Resolution Assistance Program (RAP). New York just began a pilot program of Court Navigators for Housing Courts in some jurisdictions.  Non-lawyers would help self-represented litigants navigate the court system. The Court Navigator Program was launched in February 2014 to support and assist unrepresented litigants - people who ...
The Justice Index is a new project out of the National Center for Access to Justice at Cardozo Law School. It collects & displays data about how people in the US -- particularly those who are traditionally disadvantaged in the legal system -- are faring when it comes to access ...
For the problem of getting people's information gathered as efficiently as possible, to get them to the correct service-provider, there are several online 'triage' projects that are developing apps and websites. Here is a recent slide presentation of online intake models from a few different projects around the country. Webinar Next ...
In the Netherlands, HiiL & the Dutch Legal Aid Board are developing a second version of their Rechtwijzer platform, to provide consumers with legal help. Here is the summary of their 1.0 platform (mostly around triage -- getting someone with a legal problem to services) and then the 2.0 platform ...
  I've just posted a project summary up for my team's work at the FWD.us DREAMer Hackathon at the Program for Legal Tech & Design's site. Come over & read about what we built, see our demo, and read about our future plans. And I uploaded my entire photo ...
I just found out about Judgepedia, a site that collects information about courts and judges, in a shared wiki. Its primary user seems to be someone interested in how the judicial system in the US works, and how individual jurisdictions have established judicial systems. It's a project out of the ...
I've been thinking a lot about Consumer Law Design -- meaning, how do we build new products & experiences for lay people who want to get their legal tasks accomplished well. These are the subdomains of Consumer Law that I've drawn out -- step by step in a linear ...
I've been searching around for good information & graphic design, to communicate laws to average people. I stumbled across some amazing booklets & posters from the Center for Urban Pedagogy, or CUP. One of their missions is to make law & policy comprehensible to normal New Yorkers. This is one of ...
Here is another current initiative for Access to Justice through design/tech: Pocket DACA. Pocket DACA is an app, released this summer for free for Android & IOS, to help people who came to the US as a child, who might be eligible for DACA.  It was produced by Pro Bono Net ...
Another offline idea for Access to Justice (thanks to Briane for the mention!) -- this time being piloted by attorney Donald Howard in New Britain, Connecticut. The Connecticut Tribune reports on how he has opened a barbershop inside of his legal office, as a hybrid-business to serve more people's legal ...
The San Francisco city government launched SF Open Law this week -- to make all of its laws open for people who code, build, and design to use. Legal professionals can use it to build new tools. It's a repository for hackers to make better legal apps & tools for the ...
Citizenshipworks is building online and mobile apps aimed at non-citizens in the US -- trying to give them resources and tutorials to navigate their way through citizenship. They have checklists, expert system interviews, and tutorials to help the users along. Damian Thompson of the Knight Foundation, writes of the new app. I’m also ...
The SikhCoalition has put together an ingenious app out to crowdsource reports of discrimination at airports and on airlines. If the government and companies won't release information about how many complaints they have received, then why not ask people to report their complaints themselves? The app lets a person report ...
The Immigration Legal Resource Center (ILRC) has put out a sketched-out (at least in part) guide for a young non-citizen audience -- trying to equip them with some basic legal knowledge & set of strategies.  Some excerpts are below.  There are a lot of great starting points in the PDF ...
I've been searching around for pre-college legal curriculum. When is law taught to young people in America, other than in pre-law classes in university? I took a Civics class in my public high school, which reviewed some basic First Amendment rights, and was oriented around the rights of young people. ...
I am writing a paper on ways to bring good design to create new models of access to justice.  I have been scouting out some such threads, to see what might be worth developing further. In my browsing, I came across this pdf pamphlet from the State Bar of California.  It ...
I just came across the company TrueOffice that is putting together (inspiring!) games for businesses to train their employees on 'compliance' issues.  Think sexual harassment, information security, or ethical behavior in the office. The issue is that these trainings are typically boring, unimpressive, without lasting impact -- more of a burden ...
A short cartoon I made while listening to Professor Nora Engstrom's talk on Legal Clinics & attorney advertising at Stanford Law School last month.
Usable law design from Legal Force, in the quick snapshot handouts it provides passersby at it store in Palo Alto.
Here's an article by Jennifer Smith in the Wall Street Journal on new crops of apps that help clients find and monitor lawyers.  It mentions Viewabill (tracking how much their lawyers are charging them, in real-time); Rocket Lawyer's mobile app (create basic legal documents and buy plans for low-cost access ...
A USDOJ report on Law Schools' Access to Justice programs:meaning, what pro bono & public service offerings the schools have. The report allows schools to present what offerings they have, but it is a more a spotlight on programs, and less a detailed or critical summary of what's working & what's ...
Back in 2004, the Legal Services Corporation sponsored a law kiosk for an “online legal service center” on Navajo territory in Arizona, Utah, and New Mexico.  Read an article from back when it was debuted.  It meant to deliver access to justice, specifically for consumer and tax law. “DNA Peoples Legal ...
A great article from Slate on Tech being used for Legal Aid & Access to Justice, with lots of specific examples of how SMS and other basic tech can give reminders, process updates, basic advice, and more lawyering to people who can’t afford lawyers. The concepts: Automated Call Back Systems from legal ...
CanLii is an app out of Toronto that allows for easier searching of Canadian law. It's an effort to make the legislation more accessible, and hoping that trickles down to more numbers of people in Canada being in control of their legal pathways. New mobile app gives free access to legal ...
A major problem in governance is the spread of misinformation and rumors. Sometimes these result from concerted campaigns by political actors, to manipulate politicians with rumors meant to make them suspicious or fearful about something.  Other times rumors are not driven by anyone, but snowball on their own.  Either way, ...
Dispute resolution mechanisms inside refugee communities can be a model for other resolution systems in non-refugee contexts. For example, consider the ideas identified in this write-up of design interventions in a Serbian camp in the 1990s, by Divna Persic-Todorovic. In particular, consider in-person and game-based trainings in dispute resolution. “This article is about ...
An article from Ben Paynter at Good Magazine about Gary Well’s work in the Austin Police Department to use a computer program to improve crime witnesses’ identification of suspects. an excerpt “It’s an experimental protocol designed by Gary Wells, the guru of eyewitness reliability—or rather, unreliability. The director of social sciences at the American ...
Chicago-Kent Law School, out of its Center for Access to Justice & Technology, has started publishing A2J — Access to Justice apps. A2J Author is a platform that lets non-tech specialists in the government, courts, and legal world to build websites & apps to let non-lawyers get more access — more ...
The New York State Bar Association has released a mobile app for lawyers, judges, and other legal practitioners — for quicker advice on whether their action is ‘Ethical Under the Law.’ The app mainly provides a Search Function, to let the professional find a legal opinion on the matter at hand, ...
Many cities are using “311 Apps” on mobile devices or on Facebook to let citizens report basic city problems — potholes, graffiti, etc — to their local representatives. They can supply the details, photos, and requests directly to the city official that should be responding to them. It also allows ...

Categories of Access Innovations

We have observed a trend of what types of access to justice innovation are being developed. These categories can also be an agenda of what needs to be happening in the future. Here are the key access innovation categories.

1. Triage a person from issue/problem to the right legal path, so that a person can present symptoms and issues and be given direction about what legal path to take. Triage can also diagnose a person’s best type of service path — so not about the legal issue, but rather about whether the person should best receive service via tech, in-person consults, unbundled interactions, or otherwise.

Some examples of Triage innovations:

  • In-person legal aid counters, centers, store-fronts, kiosks
  • Self-help centers in courts and libraries
  • Online intake portal for an organization, region, state, country

2. Dispute Resolution systems. These innovations guide a person through a legal issue dispute, and get them to a resolution using a variety of techniques.

  • Process guidance thru tech
  • Document capture, analysis, and collaboration
  • Information capture, storytelling
  • Review by a professional mediator, arbitrator, etc.

3. Data Standardization. Efforts in this area focus on how we capture data in the world of legal services — from client data, to information about how services operate, or what services are on offer — in a standard, open, interoperable way. Some of the data to be standardized:

  • eligibility for services
  • services on offer
  • process steps, legal requirements
  • document & filing protocols

Other features coming soon

As we work further on this inventory, we will be expanding from the post list to other mechanisms to see and use information about existing access to justice programs. These coming functions include:

  • A baseline protocol that lists out what a good access court or legal aid group for other role should have. We can have a filter based on the location / sponsor of the innovation. We can also have a filter around cost or intensity. This will help us to make more meaningful categorizations and they the readings.
  • A map which geographically locates where are the actual innovations are being used, so that we can start to see what is spreading and where are the hubs are.